1. Bishnoi Movement
In the year 1730, Maharaja Abhay Singh of Jodhpur planned to build his new palace, but when wood was needed for this, it came to the fore that there is a wood famine in Rajasthan. Maharaj sent soldiers to arrange the wood. The soldiers reached Khejri village of Bishnoi society to arrange the tree. There were a large number of trees here. When Amrita Devi, a resident of the village came to know about it, she opposed it.
He sacrificed his life by clinging to the tree. Seeing him, his daughters also clung to the trees. He too lost his life. When this news spread in the village, the people of Bishnoi community started a movement to save the trees. In this 363 people sacrificed their lives in that movement. The people of Bishnoi community used to worship trees. After this, the Chipko movement started in the country in 1972 was inspired by this.
2. Chipko Andolan: When people clinging to trees to save them
To save the trees, the Chipko movement was started at Gopeshwar in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand (then part of UP). This movement was started in 1973 by Chandiprasad Bhatt, Gaura Devi and Sunderlal Bahuguna among others. These people led this movement. This movement was done to save the forests from indiscriminate and illegal logging.
Under this movement, people used to cling to trees to save them, due to which it was named Chipko Andolan. People did not allow contractors to cut trees. The then Chief Minister Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna had to intervene and he formed a committee for this. The committee gave the verdict in favor of the villagers. People won in 1980 and the then Indira Gandhi government had banned the felling of trees in the Himalayan forest area for 15 years. This movement later spread to many other states.
Many movements took place to save the trees.
3. Save the Silent Valley Movement of Kerala
Situated in the southern state of Kerala, the Silent Valley is a forest spread over an area of about 89 square kilometers. Many special species of trees and flowers are found here. In 1973, the hydroelectric project of the Kerala State Electricity Board here was approved by the Planning Commission. It was planned to build a dam on the banks of river Kuntipuja to generate electricity.
Due to this, there was a danger of submergence of about 8.3 square kilometers of forest. Seeing this in 1978, many voluntary organizations, environmentalists and people got together. Everyone started protesting against the government. In January 1981, Indira Gandhi’s government had to bow down to her and Silent Valley was declared a protected area. The power project was withdrawn in 1983. In 1985, the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi inaugurated the Silent Valley National Park.
4. Appico movement was started in Karnataka
This movement was started in 1983 on the lines of Chipko Andolan to save forest area and trees in Uttar Kannada and Shimoga district of Karnataka. This movement was started under the leadership of Pandurang Hegde in Karnataka for the protection of forests. The local people were protesting against the felling of trees by the contractors. Under this movement, people took out marches, performed street plays. The agitation continued for 38 consecutive days. The movement forced the government to order a halt to the felling of trees. After the movement became more popular, the workers who went to cut trees also left the felling of trees. In the end the people won.
5. Save the Jungle Movement
Save Jungle Andolan was started in 1982 in Singhbhum district of Bihar. Later this movement spread to Jharkhand and Orissa. The government had planned to convert the forests of Bihar into the forests of teak trees. All the tribal tribes of Bihar united against this plan and they started the Save the Jungle Movement to save their forests.